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Vaccine Development


El_Trauco
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  • 4 weeks later...

 

Good for the US Army . . . . repeated boosters are not the long term answer to the Pandemic - as has been observed, we can't vaccinate the whole World every 6 months ! 2nd Generation vaccines projects, of which there are very many, generally seem to be addressing existing strains of the virus.

In the journal 'Nature', attention is drawn again to the importance of T-cells in providing longer lasting immunity  https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-022-00063-0?  Also here https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7584424/

CEPI - awareness of the need for a 'Universal vaccine' - https://cepi.net/news_cepi/going-universal-the-search-for-an-all-in-one-coronavirus-vaccine/

The Wellcome Trust sees the problem https://www.theguardian.com/business/2022/jan/11/wellcome-trust-covid-vaccines

Here's a DT article on Scancell's 'Universal' - 'Covidity' in trial in RSA atm - hTTps://www.telegraph.co.uk%2Fglobal-health%2Fscience-and-disease%2Fexclusive-universal-vaccine-can-conquer-covid-variants-could%2F

We need NEW and WIDER ACTING vaccines - there's a massive amount of resource ready to go when the right project comes along. Plenty of 'hopeful' developments - waiting for one to succeed !

 

 

Edited by TorquayFan
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Roll on improved vaccines !!

"The Covid-19 vaccines available today are amazing feats of science. Researchers achieved in less than a year what can sometimes take decades: They targeted a new virus with multiple highly effective vaccines that have reached billions of people. They deployed new approaches like using messenger RNA and adenovirus vectors at large scales for the first time, making some of the biggest leaps in vaccine technology in hundreds of years. But the limitations of these vaccines are becoming apparent, which is why some scientists are calling for an even bigger leap forward in vaccine technology. They envision a universal coronavirus vaccine that could counter every known variant of the virus that causes Covid-19, and even variants that haven’t emerged yet. It’s possible such a vaccine could protect against the whole family of coronaviruses, bolstering long-term immunity and slashing the risks of similar pandemics in the future.

This work is urgent because scientists are finding that protection from Covid-19 vaccines fades over time. And the virus itself is changing, mutating in ways that make it harder for the immune system to counter. The omicron variant has already caused breakthrough infections in large numbers of vaccinated people, and it’s a matter of time before the virus mutates again."

hTTps://www.vox.com/22876661/universal-covid-19-vaccine-variants-omicron

 

Edited by TorquayFan
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Sorry about the links - I don't know but the fails may be caused by an ad-blocker. If anyone is interested - PM me and I'll try again to send it to you. ATB

Edited by TorquayFan
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The importance of T-cell immunity, (as distinct from anti-bodies).

"When it comes to coronavirus immunity, antibodies have stolen the limelight. Researchers are monitoring people’s levels of antibodies — particularly ‘neutralizing antibodies’ that directly prevent the virus from replicating — with bated breath. A drop in neutralizing-antibody levels correlates with an increased risk of symptomatic infection. Antibodies are also easier to study than T cells, making it easier to analyse them in large, international vaccine trials.

But the rise of coronavirus variants has shown how fragile antibody-based immunity can be in the face of a changing virus. Neutralizing antibodies bind to a handful of regions on the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, used as a template for many COVID-19 vaccines. Mutate those sites, and antibody protection fades.

T cells, however, are more resilient. These cells perform a variety of immune functions, including acting as ‘killer’ cells that destroy virus-infected cells. By killing infected cells, T cells can limit the spread of infection — and potentially reduce the chance of serious illness.

T-cell levels do not tend to fade as quickly as antibodies after an infection or vaccination. And because T cells can recognize many more sites along the spike protein than can antibodies, they are better able to recognize mutated variants. “What sounds like a lot of mutations doesn’t dent the T-cell response,” says Burgers.

So far, computer and lab analyses suggest that this is the case for Omicron. Several research groups have cross-referenced the mutations in Omicron with sites in the SARS-CoV-2 genome that are known targets of T cells. They have found that the majority of sites that T cells recognize are present in Omicron1.

Other studies have analysed T cells taken from people who have either received a COVID-19 vaccine or been infected with a previous variant, and found that these T cells can respond to Omicron24. “The T-cell responses remain quite intact, that’s good news,” says Corine Geurts van Kessel, a clinical virologist at the Erasmus Medical Centre in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. “The next step will be: what will it do in real life?"

That's from the "Nature" link above.

Edited by TorquayFan
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"SARS-CoV-2 first emerged in the human population in late 2019 in Wuhan, China, and in a matter of months, spread across the globe resulting in the Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic and substantial economic fallout. SARS-CoV-2 is transmitted between humans via respiratory particles, with infection presenting a spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from asymptomatic to respiratory failure with multiorgan dysfunction and death in severe cases. Prior experiences with human pathogenic coronaviruses and respiratory virus diseases in general have revealed an important role for cellular immunity in limiting disease severity. Here, we review some of the key mechanisms underlying cell-mediated immunity to respiratory viruses and summarize our current understanding of the functional capacity and role of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells following natural infection and vaccination.

Keywords: T cells, Infection, Vaccination, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2"
 
and "Given the relatively high frequency and potential long-term consequences of severe COVID-19, the establishment of herd immunity to SARS-CoV-2 through vaccination is favored. Safe and effective SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are urgently needed for immunoprophylaxis and priming for rapid anamnestic responses to subsequent exposures. There are currently over 200 candidates worldwide in various stages of preclinical and human testing [77]. Correlates of immune protection to COVID-19 are unknown, but the major goal of most vaccines is the induction of neutralizing antibodies due to their potential for protecting the lower airway and reducing disease severity. They may also reduce the duration of virus shedding in the upper airway and limit transmission. However, coordinated and lasting CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses with the proper specificity, phenotype, and function are also likely to be critical components, as multiple studies have reported that circulating antibodies to CoVs may be short-lived, or of low magnitude and/or potency [28,78,79]. Therefore, rapid expansion of vaccine-induced memory lymphocytes may be necessary to boost immunity and curtail COVID-19 disease and transmission."
 
From the NCBI link above.

 

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